Ø Explain the categories of element contained in ILO OSH management system. (20 Marks)
Ø The implementation OSH Management System is essential to achieve the
Submitted: 26th October 2008
Explain the categories of element contained in ILO OSH management system. (20 Marks)
•Terangkan kategori elemen yang terdapat di dalam pengurusan keselamatan dan kesihatan pekerjaan yang terkandung di dalam Sistem Pengurusan Keselamatan dan Kesihatan Pekerjaan ILO. (20 Markah)
The occupational safety and health (
The OSH management systems in the organization has five main sections which follow the internationally accepted Demming cycle of Plan-Do-Check-Act, ( PDCA ) which is the basis to the “system” approach to management. These sections are namely Policy, Organizing, Planning and implementation, Evaluation and Action ( POPEA ) for improvement .
Policy contains the elements of
Ø Chief Executive Officer
Ø Plant manager
Ø Managing Director
When developing an
There are many ways that workers can contribute and participate in
Ø Safety assessment
Ø Hazard reporting
Ø Tool box meeting
Ø Training programs
Ø Workplace inspection
Ø Represented in the
Ø Task analysis
Promoting health and preventing accidents, diseases and other work related health effect and complying with
Organizing contains the elements of responsibility and accountability, competence and training, documentation and communication. It makes sure that the management structure is in place, as well as the necessary responsibilities allocated for delivering the
Planning and implementation contains the elements of initial review, system planning, development and implementation,
Evaluation contains the elements of performance monitoring and measurement, investigation of work-related injuries, ill-health, diseases and incidents, audit and management review. It shows how the
Action for improvement includes the elements of preventive and corrective action and continual improvement. It implements the necessary preventive and corrective actions identified by the evaluation and audits carried out. It also emphasizes the need for continual improvement of
Refer to the appendices for view the relationship between which is the basic to the system approach to the
The main sections and their elements of the
Figure 2-OSH Management System- ( PDCA ):
Leadership & Accountability
1. Management Commitment & Direction
2. Employee Roles & Responsibilities
1. Hazard Control & Risk Management
2. Laws & Regulations
1. Education & Training
2. Rules & Procedures
3. Emergency Planning & Medical Surveillance
4. Documents & Records
5. Contractor & Vendor (Supplier) Management
6. Product Safety
7. Security & Travel Safety
Check & Monitor (Check)
1. Audits & Inspections
2. Incidents Investigation & Reporting
Management Review (Act)
1. Process Assessment & Improvement
The implementation OSH Management System is essential to achieve the
•Perlaksanaan sistem pengurusan keselamatan dan kesihatan pekerjaan merupakan elemen penting dalam mencapai objektif keselamatan dan kesihatan pekerjaan sesebuah organisasi. Sistem ini terdiri daripada elemen-elemen dan program yang telah dirangka. Wujudkan dasar keselamatan dan kesihatan pekerjaan dan objektif syarikat anda. Seterusnya, bangunkan program keselamatan dan kesihatan pekerjaan untuk mencapai objektif ini. (20 Markah)
( Reg No: 88888 )
BUILDING & CIVIL ENGENEERING CONTRACTORS Email Address : firstname.lastname@example.org No Tel/fax : 083-345666
HEALTH, SAFETY, AND ENVIRONMENT POLICY
Sri Jaya Sdn.Bhd. , firmly believes that a good Health , Safety , and Environment ( HSE ) performance contributes positively to its efficiency and business success.
Sri Jaya Sdn.Bhd. is committed to conduct its operations in such manner as to:
Ø Provides a safe working environment and secure workplace.
Ø Ensure the safety of its employees within the areas of operations.
Ø Conduct business in a manner that protects public and occupational health, the environment and employee safety.
Ø Concern the health and welfare of employees under its employment.
Ø Prevent loss or damage to property resulting from its activities.
Ø Provide recognition and rewards for all HSE achievements.
Ø Our goals is continual improvement.
All Sri Jaya Sdn.Bhd. employees are responsible for assuring that we achieve continuous and measurable improvement.
MOHAMAD ALUIS BIN HAMRI
What is a policy statement ?
An organization's occupational health and safety policy is a statement of principles and general rules that serve as guides for action. Senior management must be committed to ensuring that the policy is carried out with no exceptions. The health and safety policy should have the same importance as the other policies of the organization.
The policy statement can be brief, but it should mention:
- management's commitment to protect the safety and health of employees
- the objectives of the program
- the organization's basic health and safety philosophy
- who is accountable for occupational health and safety programs
- the general responsibilities of all employees
- that health and safety shall not be sacrificed for expediency
- that unacceptable performance of health and safety duties will not be tolerated
The policy should be:
- stated in clear, unambiguous, and unequivocal terms
- signed by the incumbent Chief Executive Officer
- kept up-to-date
- communicated to each employee
- adhered to in all work activities
THE FOLLOWING IS AN OBJECTIVES OF SRI JAYA SDN.BHD
- Sri Jaya Sdn.Bhd. objectives are to achieve “Zero Lost Time” injuries, create a safe working environment and built up a safe working culture.
- Sri Jaya Sdn.Bhd.will implement our own policy to established OSH responsibilities and accountabilities to provides a safe working environment and make sure that our workplace its safe from any accidents.
- all personnel are required to support the
program and make safety and health a part of their daily routine and to ensure that they are following safe work methods and relevant regulations OSH
- all relevant laws and regulations are incorporated in our program as minimum standards
- to ensure that all joint occupational health and safety committee
Sri Jaya Sdn.Bhd. main objectives are to achieve “Zero Lost Time” injuries, create a safe working environment and built up a safe working culture. The management will continuously review the control measures and to ensure that all
control measures are monitored against set performance indicators and reviewing according for effectiveness and practicability in controlling hazard.
Sri Jaya Sdn.Bhd -
A health and safety program is a definite plan of action designed to prevent accidents and occupational diseases. Some form of a program is required under occupational health and safety legislation. A safety health and program must include the elements required by the health and safety legislation as a minimum. The more comprehensive the program is, the more employee involvement can be expected. Our
Ø Sri Jaya Sdn.Bhd. activities about Safety and Health (
ü advising all employees on health and safety matters
ü coordinating interdepartmental health and safety activities
ü collecting and analyzing health and safety statistics
ü providing health and safety training
ü conducting research on special problems
ü attending health and safety committee meetings as a resource person
ü providing a safe and healthful workplace
ü establishing and maintaining a health and safety program
ü ensuring workers are trained or certified, as required
ü providing medical and first aid facilities
ü ensuring personal protective equipment is available
ü providing workers with health and safety information
ü supporting supervisors in their health and safety activities
ü evaluating health and safety performance of supervisors
What are the program elements ?
While organizations will have different needs and scope for specific elements required in their health and safety program, the following basic items should be considered in each case:
- Individual responsibility
- Health and safety rules
- Correct work procedures
- Employee orientation
- Workplace inspections
- Reporting and investigating accidents
- Emergency procedures
- Medical and first aid
- Health and safety promotion
- Workplace specific items
THE FOLLOWING IS AN EXAMPLE OF
Information and Training OSH
Employers have specific legal obligations to inform and train workers.
- Employers shall provide their employees with the information, instruction, training and supervision necessary to ensure their safety and health
- Employers shall ensure that each of their employees is informed of every known or foreseeable safety and health hazard in the area where the employee works
- Employers must train employees to ensure that all hazardous substances are stored, handled and used in the manner prescribed
Employers are required to inform workers by posting where all can read:
- the employer's safety and health policy
- names of committee members or representatives and where they work
- minutes of committee meetings
- names and work locations of trained first aiders
- other related information as a safety officer directs
The Sri Jaya Sdn.Bhd. regulations require that training be given for all supervisory staff and employees involved in:
- the use of a temporary structure
- the use of electrically insulated protection equipment and tools
- food preparation, handling, storage and service
- the handling of hazardous substances
- the safe assembly of pipes used for transferring a hazardous substance
- safe entry into confined spaces
- the proper use of protective equipment supplied by the employer
- the operation of tools and machinery
- the use of materials handling equipment supplied by the employer
- the use of fire fighting equipment
- manual lifting and carrying
- emergency procedures
- the use of material safety data sheets and supplier labels
v First Aid
The timely provision of first aid is essential to an effective safety and health program.
- provide and maintain first aid supplies and equipment
- make first aid accessible during all working hours
- inspect first aid equipment and facilities regularly
- clearly identify the first aid station
- train at least one employee in first aid
- provide transportation for injured employees
- maintain records and reports for two years
- post names, locations and telephone numbers of first aid attendants
- maintain a first aid treatment record book
- Prompt, effective first aid treatment is the first priority in an emergency, followed by a written report on the casualty and a factual account of the treatment given
- An employer should require that all employees report for treatment immediately regardless of the extent of the injury
Committee or Representative OSH
A safety and health committee is a group of people representing management and employees, working together to improve
Exception may be granted as follows:
- on board a ship
- if work being done is relatively risk-free
- if a committee already exists
Any employer given an exemption from having a committee must, nevertheless, have a safety and health representative.
The Sri Jaya Sdn.Bhd. stipulates that both safety and health committees and safety and health representatives have, as a minimum, the following powers:
- to handle complaints about
concerns in their work place OSH
- to participate in all
inquiries and investigations in their work place OSH
- to monitor
- to monitor accident records for adequacy and trends
- to have full access to all government and employer
- to have access to material safety data shee
- may request from employers
information they require OSH
- may have access to medical records with the consent of the individuals
- shall co-operate with the occupational health service for their work place
- shall co-operate with safety officers
In addition to the powers listed above, the safety and health committee:
- consults in hazard prevention education programs and emergency planning
- shall keep records on how complaints are handled
- shall monitor the program's measures and procedures
- may prepare and promote
education programs OSH
- may develop, establish and maintain
v Operation of
Operation of Occupational Safety and Health Committees
Payment of wages
Selection and appointment of members
Minutes of meetings
v Work Place Inspection
Work place inspection is an essential part of an
- identify hazards
- set standards and related procedures
- establish controls
- monitor effectiveness of controls
For work place inspections, consider the following:
- Analyzing inspection reports is a critical function of safety and health committees and representatives in the prevention of accidents
- At least one person reviewing reports should have the authority necessary to take or plan corrective action or to delegate as necessary
- Items spotted during an inspection that are an immediate danger shall be reported to the responsible supervisor or manager without delay, and action taken
- Analysis of inspection reports over a period of time can highlight the need for training, establish priorities, improve safe work practices, and indicate areas and equipment that require a more in&SHY;depth hazard analysis
The steps in establishing a reliable work place inspection system are:
- Establish appropriate policy and procedures.
- List possible and potential hazards in the work place.
- Obtain commitment of senior management for the inspection.
- Clarify who is responsible for reviewing reports and making decisions.
- Develop checklists of all potential hazards in the work place, be thorough to ensure that none are overlooked.
- Report the inspection results to the right person, ensure management is aware of all problems.
- Review inspection reports to identify corrective action and to identify trends.
- Ensure there is feedback to persons responsible for the inspection.
Sample Inspection List
Date : 26th October 2008
Location/Department : Block B ,
Yes = Satisfactory
Safe Work Practices
Use of machine guards
Use of Personal Protective Equipment
Proper storage areas
Tools and Machinery
First aid kits in rooms/vehicles
v Work Place Health Monitoring
Medical examinations and health services can help identify conditions in the work place which may adversely affect the health of workers.
Assessment of health hazards
When there is a likelihood that the safety or health of an employee in a work place is, or may be, endangered by exposure to a hazardous substance or other hazardous conditions, the employer shall:
- Appoint a qualified person to investigate the:
a. chemical, biological and physical properties of the hazardous substance
b. routes of exposure
c. effects to health
d. quantity of the hazardous substance and manner in which it is handled
e. control methods used to eliminate or reduce exposure.
- Notify the safety and health committee or representative of the investigation.
- Monitor other hazardous conditions such as noise and lighting to ensure that they meet prescribed standards.
Health monitoring can:
- help protect employees' health so they can perform their duties with no danger to themselves or other workers;
- lead to improved working conditions;
- evaluate whether control methods are effective.
Sources of Information
- Health videos
- Education and training
- Professional medical consultants
v Accident Investigation and Reporting
A hazardous occurrence is any incident or event that is neither planned nor expected and could reasonably be expected to cause injury or illness or in fact does cause injury or illness to a person.
Where an accident occurs employers shall without delay:
- secure the accident site
- appoint a qualified person to determine the causes of the accident
- notify the safety and health committee or representative of the accident
A telephone or telex report shall be made to a Federal Safety Officer within 24 hours when the accident results in:
- death to an employee
- a disabling injury to two or more employees
- an explosion
- rupture or fire in a boiler or pressure vessel
- free fall or damage to an elevator that makes it unserviceable
A written report must be given, without delay, to the safety and health committee or representative when the investigation reveals there was:
- a disabling injury to an employee
- loss of consciousness due to electric shock, toxic atmosphere or oxygen deficiency
- use of emergency procedures such as revival of a person
- a fire or explosion
v Safety Audits
A safety audit includes a critical review of all elements of occupational safety and health in a work place. This includes an assessment of work place conditions and work procedures as well as policies and their implementation.
The following chart lists key elements and questions for an effective safety audit.
Safety and Health Policy
Accountability for Safety and Health
Safety and Health Organization and Committee
| || |
Safety Inspection System
Accident Investigations, Reporting and Statistics
Safe Work Procedures
v Personal Protective Equipment
Our company committed with our
Ø Safety helmet
Ø Safety shoes
Ø Safety belt
Ø Safety harness
Ø Ear plug
NOTE: Refer the appendices page 30 for details
The action plan must be implemented in a way that is compatible with professional rules and practices as well as with existing procedures Audits must be systematically carried out and analyzed in order to select corrective actions. Audits include an analysis of occupational accidents and diseases that have occurred, without restriction to immediate and directly perceivable causes. A more comprehensive approach will seek to identify root causes to ensure greater effectiveness of preventive measures.
Management reviews help to improve the system, adjust policies and devise new programmed of action on the basis of observed indicator performance. Policy assessments allow for investigation into failure due to the general design and organization of the system, into the effectiveness of the strategies for action.
Occupational safety and health may form part of a system that also addresses quality and the environment. If this is the case, these policies must be harmonies in order to produce a single procedure rather than an accumulation of different procedures which may contradict each other. Audits and management reviews should also be shared.
From all that we discuss previously, safety is the main factor that can achieve our successful business. Hence, Sri Jaya Sdn.Bhd. particularly for all safety at workplace.
List Of References:
Ø Http:// ilo.org/public/english/protection/safework/cops/french/download/f 000013.pdf.
Ø Open University Malaysia-Institute of Professional Development ( Applied
Ø OHSAS 18001 – Occupational Safety and Health Management System Specification.
Ø ILO Guidelines On Occupational Safety And Health Management System ( ILO – OSH 2001,2002 –p4 )
( 2 ) - Safety Signage :
Fire & Fire Exit-Fire Safety First Aid Parking Control
Safety Labels No Smoking Signs Traffic and road Signs
Elevator/Escalator-Fire Signs Parking Control Construction Signs
Fire Fighting Signs Fire