Friday, July 17, 2009

MODULE 3:APPLIED OSH MANAGEMENT

OPEN UNIVERSITY MALAYSIA

INSTITUTE OF PROFESIONAL DEVELOPMENT

APPLIED OSH MANAGEMENT

MODULE 3

Assignment For

Ø Explain the categories of element contained in ILO OSH management system. (20 Marks)

Ø The implementation OSH Management System is essential to achieve the OSH objectives of any organizations. The system is structured by elements and programs developed. Establish an OSH policy and objectives for your organization. Develop your own OSH program to achieve these objectives and company policy. (20 Marks)

Submitted: 26th October 2008

Assignment

Question 1:

Explain the categories of element contained in ILO OSH management system. (20 Marks)

Terangkan kategori elemen yang terdapat di dalam pengurusan keselamatan dan kesihatan pekerjaan yang terkandung di dalam Sistem Pengurusan Keselamatan dan Kesihatan Pekerjaan ILO. (20 Markah)

The occupational safety and health ( OSH ) management system :

An OSH management system is a tool combining people, policies and resources. It aims at improving a business occupational safety and health performance, making for better organization and continual improvement within the company by ensuring that OSH matters are integrated across the organization.

The OSH management systems in the organization has five main sections which follow the internationally accepted Demming cycle of Plan-Do-Check-Act, ( PDCA ) which is the basis to the “system” approach to management. These sections are namely Policy, Organizing, Planning and implementation, Evaluation and Action ( POPEA ) for improvement .

Policy contains the elements of OSH policy and worker participation. It is the basis of the OSH management system as it sets the direction for the organization to follow. It is also includes activities related to the development of the organization’s OSH policy statements and the structure and practices that insure active and meaningful worker participants in OSH arrangements. The responsibility for developing the OSH policy should rest with those at the top of the organization. For example:


Ø Chairman

Ø Chief Executive Officer

Ø Plant manager

Ø Managing Director


When developing an OSH policy, management must be sure that OSH issues are integrated into the overall strategies, and that they are compatible with other policies, such as:


Ø Quality

Ø Purchasing

Ø Security

Ø Environmental


There are many ways that workers can contribute and participate in OSH activities such as:



Ø OSH audit

Ø Safety assessment

Ø Hazard reporting

Ø Tool box meeting

Ø Housekeeping

Ø Training programs

Ø Workplace inspection

Ø Represented in the OSH committee

Ø Task analysis


Promoting health and preventing accidents, diseases and other work related health effect and complying with OSH legal requirements also one of the elements in the policy.

Organizing contains the elements of responsibility and accountability, competence and training, documentation and communication. It makes sure that the management structure is in place, as well as the necessary responsibilities allocated for delivering the OSH policy. Management system documentation should be established and maintained. Besides that, the role of those with OSH responsibilities in the company must be specified: their assignments, responsibilities, obligations, powers and connections. Employees and their representatives must be consulted, informed and trained so that they take ownership of the process. This requires documentation, a training programmed and internal communication procedures to be set up.

Planning and implementation contains the elements of initial review, system planning, development and implementation, OSH objectives and hazard prevention. Through the initial review, it shows where the organization stands concerning OSH, and uses this as the baseline to implement the OSH policy. Any procedures for purchasing and contracting must be relevant.

Evaluation contains the elements of performance monitoring and measurement, investigation of work-related injuries, ill-health, diseases and incidents, audit and management review. It shows how the OSH management system functions and identifies any weaknesses that need improvement. It includes the very important element of auditing, which should be undertaken for each stage. Persons independent of the activity being audited should conduct audits. This does not necessarily mean third party auditors.

Action for improvement includes the elements of preventive and corrective action and continual improvement. It implements the necessary preventive and corrective actions identified by the evaluation and audits carried out. It also emphasizes the need for continual improvement of OSH performance through the constant development of policies, systems and techniques to prevent and control work-related injuries, ill-health, diseases and incidents.


Refer to the appendices for view the relationship between which is the basic to the system approach to the OSH management system.

The main sections and their elements of the OSH management system are shown in figure 1 below: ( POPEA )

OSH Management System

Figure 2-OSH Management System- ( PDCA ):


Leadership & Accountability

1. Management Commitment & Direction

2. Employee Roles & Responsibilities

Planning (Plan)

1. Hazard Control & Risk Management

2. Laws & Regulations

Implementation (Do)

1. Education & Training

2. Rules & Procedures

3. Emergency Planning & Medical Surveillance

4. Documents & Records

5. Contractor & Vendor (Supplier) Management

6. Product Safety

7. Security & Travel Safety

Check & Monitor (Check)

1. Audits & Inspections

2. Incidents Investigation & Reporting

Management Review (Act)

1. Process Assessment & Improvement

Assignment

Question 2:

The implementation OSH Management System is essential to achieve the OSH objectives of any organizations. The system is structured by elements and programs developed. Establish an OSH policy and objectives for your organization. Develop your own OSH program to achieve these objectives and company policy. (20 Marks)

Perlaksanaan sistem pengurusan keselamatan dan kesihatan pekerjaan merupakan elemen penting dalam mencapai objektif keselamatan dan kesihatan pekerjaan sesebuah organisasi. Sistem ini terdiri daripada elemen-elemen dan program yang telah dirangka. Wujudkan dasar keselamatan dan kesihatan pekerjaan dan objektif syarikat anda. Seterusnya, bangunkan program keselamatan dan kesihatan pekerjaan untuk mencapai objektif ini. (20 Markah)

SriJaya Sdn.Bhd.( Reg No: 88888 )

BUILDING & CIVIL ENGENEERING CONTRACTORS Email Address : mohd_aluis@yahoo.com No Tel/fax : 083-345666

HEALTH, SAFETY, AND ENVIRONMENT POLICY

Sri Jaya Sdn.Bhd. , firmly believes that a good Health , Safety , and Environment ( HSE ) performance contributes positively to its efficiency and business success.

Sri Jaya Sdn.Bhd. is committed to conduct its operations in such manner as to:

Ø Provides a safe working environment and secure workplace.

Ø Ensure the safety of its employees within the areas of operations.

Ø Conduct business in a manner that protects public and occupational health, the environment and employee safety.

Ø Concern the health and welfare of employees under its employment.

Ø Prevent loss or damage to property resulting from its activities.

Ø Provide recognition and rewards for all HSE achievements.

Ø Our goals is continual improvement.

All Sri Jaya Sdn.Bhd. employees are responsible for assuring that we achieve continuous and measurable improvement.

…………………………………………………..

MOHAMAD ALUIS BIN HAMRI

MANAGING DIRECTOR

SEPTEMBER 2008

What is a policy statement ?

An organization's occupational health and safety policy is a statement of principles and general rules that serve as guides for action. Senior management must be committed to ensuring that the policy is carried out with no exceptions. The health and safety policy should have the same importance as the other policies of the organization.

The policy statement can be brief, but it should mention:

  • management's commitment to protect the safety and health of employees
  • the objectives of the program
  • the organization's basic health and safety philosophy
  • who is accountable for occupational health and safety programs
  • the general responsibilities of all employees
  • that health and safety shall not be sacrificed for expediency
  • that unacceptable performance of health and safety duties will not be tolerated

The policy should be:

  • stated in clear, unambiguous, and unequivocal terms
  • signed by the incumbent Chief Executive Officer
  • kept up-to-date
  • communicated to each employee
  • adhered to in all work activities

THE FOLLOWING IS AN OBJECTIVES OF SRI JAYA SDN.BHD

  1. Sri Jaya Sdn.Bhd. objectives are to achieve “Zero Lost Time” injuries, create a safe working environment and built up a safe working culture.
  2. Sri Jaya Sdn.Bhd.will implement our own policy to established OSH responsibilities and accountabilities to provides a safe working environment and make sure that our workplace its safe from any accidents.
  3. all personnel are required to support the OSH program and make safety and health a part of their daily routine and to ensure that they are following safe work methods and relevant regulations
  4. all relevant laws and regulations are incorporated in our program as minimum standards
  5. to ensure that all joint occupational health and safety committee

Sri Jaya Sdn.Bhd. main objectives are to achieve “Zero Lost Time” injuries, create a safe working environment and built up a safe working culture. The management will continuously review the control measures and to ensure that all

control measures are monitored against set performance indicators and reviewing according for effectiveness and practicability in controlling hazard.

Sri Jaya Sdn.Bhd - OSH Programme:

A health and safety program is a definite plan of action designed to prevent accidents and occupational diseases. Some form of a program is required under occupational health and safety legislation. A safety health and program must include the elements required by the health and safety legislation as a minimum. The more comprehensive the program is, the more employee involvement can be expected. Our OSH programmed:

Ø Sri Jaya Sdn.Bhd. activities about Safety and Health ( OSH ) programs. For example :

ü advising all employees on health and safety matters

ü coordinating interdepartmental health and safety activities

ü collecting and analyzing health and safety statistics

ü providing health and safety training

ü conducting research on special problems

ü attending health and safety committee meetings as a resource person

ü providing a safe and healthful workplace

ü establishing and maintaining a health and safety program

ü ensuring workers are trained or certified, as required

ü providing medical and first aid facilities

ü ensuring personal protective equipment is available

ü providing workers with health and safety information

ü supporting supervisors in their health and safety activities

ü evaluating health and safety performance of supervisors

What are the program elements ?

While organizations will have different needs and scope for specific elements required in their health and safety program, the following basic items should be considered in each case:

  • Individual responsibility
  • Health and safety rules
  • Correct work procedures
  • Employee orientation
  • Training
  • Workplace inspections
  • Reporting and investigating accidents
  • Emergency procedures
  • Medical and first aid
  • Health and safety promotion
  • Workplace specific items

THE FOLLOWING IS AN EXAMPLE OF OSH PROGRAME FOR SRI JAYA SDN.BHD. :

v OSH Information and Training

Employers have specific legal obligations to inform and train workers.

  • Employers shall provide their employees with the information, instruction, training and supervision necessary to ensure their safety and health
  • Employers shall ensure that each of their employees is informed of every known or foreseeable safety and health hazard in the area where the employee works
  • Employers must train employees to ensure that all hazardous substances are stored, handled and used in the manner prescribed

Posting

Employers are required to inform workers by posting where all can read:

  • the employer's safety and health policy
  • names of committee members or representatives and where they work
  • minutes of committee meetings
  • names and work locations of trained first aiders
  • other related information as a safety officer directs

Required Training

The Sri Jaya Sdn.Bhd. regulations require that training be given for all supervisory staff and employees involved in:

  • the use of a temporary structure
  • the use of electrically insulated protection equipment and tools
  • food preparation, handling, storage and service
  • the handling of hazardous substances
  • the safe assembly of pipes used for transferring a hazardous substance
  • safe entry into confined spaces
  • the proper use of protective equipment supplied by the employer
  • the operation of tools and machinery
  • the use of materials handling equipment supplied by the employer
  • the use of fire fighting equipment
  • manual lifting and carrying
  • emergency procedures
  • the use of material safety data sheets and supplier labels

v First Aid

Introduction

The timely provision of first aid is essential to an effective safety and health program.

Legal Requirements

Employers shall:

  • provide and maintain first aid supplies and equipment
  • make first aid accessible during all working hours
  • inspect first aid equipment and facilities regularly
  • clearly identify the first aid station
  • train at least one employee in first aid
  • provide transportation for injured employees
  • maintain records and reports for two years
  • post names, locations and telephone numbers of first aid attendants
  • maintain a first aid treatment record book

General

  • Prompt, effective first aid treatment is the first priority in an emergency, followed by a written report on the casualty and a factual account of the treatment given
  • An employer should require that all employees report for treatment immediately regardless of the extent of the injury

v OSH Committee or Representative

Definition

A safety and health committee is a group of people representing management and employees, working together to improve OSH in their work place. A safety and health representative has many of the powers of a safety and health committee.

Exception

Exception may be granted as follows:

  • on board a ship
  • if work being done is relatively risk-free
  • if a committee already exists

Any employer given an exemption from having a committee must, nevertheless, have a safety and health representative.

Legal Powers

The Sri Jaya Sdn.Bhd. stipulates that both safety and health committees and safety and health representatives have, as a minimum, the following powers:

  • to handle complaints about OSH concerns in their work place
  • to participate in all OSH inquiries and investigations in their work place
  • to monitor OSH programs
  • to monitor accident records for adequacy and trends
  • to have full access to all government and employer OSH reports
  • to have access to material safety data shee
  • may request from employers OSH information they require
  • may have access to medical records with the consent of the individuals
  • shall co-operate with the occupational health service for their work place
  • shall co-operate with safety officers

In addition to the powers listed above, the safety and health committee:

  • consults in hazard prevention education programs and emergency planning
  • shall keep records on how complaints are handled
  • shall monitor the program's measures and procedures
  • may prepare and promote OSH education programs
  • may develop, establish and maintain OSH programs

v Operation of OSH Committees

Operation of Occupational Safety and Health Committees

Subject

Requirement

Records

  • a committee shall keep accurate records of all matters that come before it, including minutes of meetings

Meetings

  • have a quorum
  • during working hours
  • at least once a month
  • for urgent matters or emergencies

Payment of wages

  • time spent on committee work counts as time spent at work

Liability

  • no personal liability for anything done or omitted in good faith

Selection and appointment of members

  • employer shall select members to represent the employer from those who exercise managerial functions
  • trade unions or employees select or choose their own members

Operational procedures

  • a committee shall have two chairpersons, one an employer representative, the other an employee representative

Minutes of meetings

  • minutes of meetings shall be provided
  • the employer shall post these minutes in a conspicuous place

v Work Place Inspection

Definition

Work place inspection is an essential part of an OSH program in which the work place is examined closely on a regular basis to:

  • identify hazards
  • set standards and related procedures
  • establish controls
  • monitor effectiveness of controls

Guidelines

For work place inspections, consider the following:

  • Analyzing inspection reports is a critical function of safety and health committees and representatives in the prevention of accidents
  • At least one person reviewing reports should have the authority necessary to take or plan corrective action or to delegate as necessary
  • Items spotted during an inspection that are an immediate danger shall be reported to the responsible supervisor or manager without delay, and action taken
  • Analysis of inspection reports over a period of time can highlight the need for training, establish priorities, improve safe work practices, and indicate areas and equipment that require a more in­depth hazard analysis

Steps

The steps in establishing a reliable work place inspection system are:

  1. Planning
    - Establish appropriate policy and procedures.
    - List possible and potential hazards in the work place.
    - Obtain commitment of senior management for the inspection.
    - Clarify who is responsible for reviewing reports and making decisions.
  2. Conducting
    - Develop checklists of all potential hazards in the work place, be thorough to ensure that none are overlooked.
  3. Reporting
    - Report the inspection results to the right person, ensure management is aware of all problems.
  4. Monitoring
    - Review inspection reports to identify corrective action and to identify trends.
    - Ensure there is feedback to persons responsible for the inspection.

Sample Inspection List

Date : 26th October 2008

Location/Department : Block B ,

Yes = Satisfactory
No = Unsatisfactory, needs attention

Yes

No

Safe Work Practices

Use of machine guards
Proper manual lifting
Smoking only in safe, designated areas
Proper use of air hoses
No horseplay
Other_____________________

Use of Personal Protective Equipment

Eye/face protection
Footwear
Gloves
Protective clothing
Head protection
Aprons
Respirators
Other_____________________

Housekeeping

Proper storage areas
Proper storage of flammable material (oily/greasy rags, etc.)
Proper disposal of waste
Floors (clean, dry, uncluttered)
Maintenance of yards, parking lots
Other_____________________

Electrical Safety

Machines grounding/GFI
Electrical cords
Electrical outlets
Other_____________________

Yes

No

Fire Protection

Fire extinguishers
Proper type/location
Storage of flammable materials
Other_____________________

Tools and Machinery

Lawn mowers
Power tools
Hand tools
Snow blowers
Machine guarding
Belts, pulleys, gears, shafts
Oiling, cleaning, adjusting
Maintenance, oil leakage
Other_____________________

First aid

First aid kits in rooms/vehicles
Trained first aid providers
Emergency numbers posted
All injuries reported
Other _____________________

Miscellaneous

MSDS/Labels
Dust/vapour/fume control
Safe use of ladders/scaffolds
New processes or procedures carried out
Other_____________________

v Work Place Health Monitoring

Description

Medical examinations and health services can help identify conditions in the work place which may adversely affect the health of workers.

Legal Requirements

Assessment of health hazards

When there is a likelihood that the safety or health of an employee in a work place is, or may be, endangered by exposure to a hazardous substance or other hazardous conditions, the employer shall:

  • Appoint a qualified person to investigate the:
    a. chemical, biological and physical properties of the hazardous substance
    b. routes of exposure
    c. effects to health
    d. quantity of the hazardous substance and manner in which it is handled
    e. control methods used to eliminate or reduce exposure.
  • Notify the safety and health committee or representative of the investigation.
  • Monitor other hazardous conditions such as noise and lighting to ensure that they meet prescribed standards.

Examples

Health monitoring can:

  • help protect employees' health so they can perform their duties with no danger to themselves or other workers;
  • lead to improved working conditions;
  • evaluate whether control methods are effective.

Sources of Information

  • Health videos
  • Pamphlets
  • Counseling
  • Education and training
  • Professional medical consultants

v Accident Investigation and Reporting

Definition

A hazardous occurrence is any incident or event that is neither planned nor expected and could reasonably be expected to cause injury or illness or in fact does cause injury or illness to a person.

Investigations

Where an accident occurs employers shall without delay:

  • secure the accident site
  • appoint a qualified person to determine the causes of the accident
  • notify the safety and health committee or representative of the accident

Telephone Reports

A telephone or telex report shall be made to a Federal Safety Officer within 24 hours when the accident results in:

  • death to an employee
  • a disabling injury to two or more employees
  • an explosion
  • rupture or fire in a boiler or pressure vessel
  • free fall or damage to an elevator that makes it unserviceable

Written Reports

A written report must be given, without delay, to the safety and health committee or representative when the investigation reveals there was:

  • a disabling injury to an employee
  • loss of consciousness due to electric shock, toxic atmosphere or oxygen deficiency
  • use of emergency procedures such as revival of a person
  • a fire or explosion

v Safety Audits

Description

A safety audit includes a critical review of all elements of occupational safety and health in a work place. This includes an assessment of work place conditions and work procedures as well as policies and their implementation.

Summary Chart

The following chart lists key elements and questions for an effective safety audit.

Items

Questions

Safety and Health Policy

  • Is one clearly written?
  • Is it posted?
  • Does management support it?

Accountability for Safety and Health

  • Is responsibility defined in writing?
  • Do all levels understand it?
  • Does performance evaluation show support?

Safety and Health Organization and Committee

  • Is there an OSH committee or representative?
  • Does management support the committee/representative?

OSH Education and Training

  • Is there a safety and health training program?
  • Are safety rules posted?

Safety Inspection System

  • Is a regular planned program in effect?
  • Who are inspection results reported to?

Accident Investigations, Reporting and Statistics

  • What accidents are investigated?
  • Who investigates them?
  • Are all accidents/illnesses reported?

Safe Work Procedures

  • What regulatory violations were noted?
  • Were there written work procedures for hazardous jobs?
  • Were work orders

v Personal Protective Equipment

Our company committed with our OSH policy. Safety is a major factor that is priority for everyone. Hence, we are concern about health and welfare of employees. For example, Sri Jaya Sdn.Bhd. management provides “Personal Protective Equipment “(PPE) for our workers such as:


Ø Safety helmet

Ø Safety shoes

Ø Goggles

Ø Gloves

Ø Safety belt

Ø Safety harness

Ø Respirators

Ø Ear plug

Ø Coverall


NOTE: Refer the appendices page 30 for details

OSH policy sets a framework for the management system. It must be driven by a genuine desire of the most senior executive to commit to the process and to taking the organization continually forward.
The action plan must be implemented in a way that is compatible with professional rules and practices as well as with existing procedures Audits must be systematically carried out and analyzed in order to select corrective actions. Audits include an analysis of occupational accidents and diseases that have occurred, without restriction to immediate and directly perceivable causes. A more comprehensive approach will seek to identify root causes to ensure greater effectiveness of preventive measures.

Management reviews help to improve the system, adjust policies and devise new programmed of action on the basis of observed indicator performance. Policy assessments allow for investigation into failure due to the general design and organization of the system, into the effectiveness of the strategies for action.

Occupational safety and health may form part of a system that also addresses quality and the environment. If this is the case, these policies must be harmonies in order to produce a single procedure rather than an accumulation of different procedures which may contradict each other. Audits and management reviews should also be shared.

From all that we discuss previously, safety is the main factor that can achieve our successful business. Hence, Sri Jaya Sdn.Bhd. particularly for all safety at workplace.


List Of References:

Internet References:

Ø www.ilo.org/safework

Ø Http:// ilo.org/public/english/protection/safework/cops/french/download/f 000013.pdf.

Ø Http:// www.ohsas-18001-occupational-health-safety.com/

Books References:

Ø Open University Malaysia-Institute of Professional Development ( Applied OSH Management -pp 46 – 49 )

Ø OSH Management – Cross Reference between OHSAS 18001:1999 and MS 1722:2005 ( NIOSH Certification – p 52 )

Ø OHSAS 18001 – Occupational Safety and Health Management System Specification.

Ø ILO Guidelines On Occupational Safety And Health Management System ( ILO – OSH 2001,2002 –p4 )


LIST OF APPENDICES:

( 1 )- Personal Protective Equipment :


( 2 ) - Safety Signage :

Exit Decals First Aid Labels Parking

Fire & Fire Exit-Fire Safety First Aid Parking Control

Safety Labels No Smoking Traffic and Road Signs - Leosignage

Safety Labels No Smoking Signs Traffic and road Signs

Elevator Escalator Parking Construction Signs - Leosignage

Elevator/Escalator-Fire Signs Parking Control Construction Signs

Fire Fighting Signs - Leosignage Fire Action Signs - Leosignage Information Signs - Leosignage

Fire Fighting Signs Fire

1 comment:

  1. Assalam, minta izin copy ilmu di blog nie .Moga diberkati

    ReplyDelete

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